and graduate students, have developed a keen interest in forming the Egyptian Society of Nematologists. 4. It is hoped that such biological control may be integrated into the nematode control programmes. The use of nematode-resistant or -tolerant varieties and rootstocks is always recommended in tomato, soybean, peach and citrus. The measure is appropriate for a situation where agriculture … Support for nematology Nematology in Egypt Legislative measures do exist but are not always put into effect. But did you know that Egypt would not have existed without their incredible abundance of food, made possible by agricultural techniques that helped them harness the cycles of the Nile River? For thousands of years, the river has provided a source of irrigation to transform the dry area around it into lush agricultural land. The most important crops grown in Egypt are discussed briefly below. This will definitely contribute, in the long term, to increasing agricultural production in North African countries. Although animal husbandry and poultry production have been promoted by the government, growth has been sluggish. So it is also prudent that the farmer’s wood needs to increase their food production. This is a more meaningful index of population density in any area. Agricultural land (sq. The total cultivated area is 7.2 million feddans (1 feddan = 0.42 ha), representing only 3 percent of the total land area. Following the construction of the Aswān High Dam, the Egyptian government encouraged the development of a fishing industry. have been recognized as a major pest causing substantial reductions in the yield of almost all vegetables, including tomatoes, fruit-trees including peaches and grapevines, and field crops including cotton and sunflower. Introduction Agricultural Density-the ratio of the # of farmers to the amount of arable land Construction of such projects as a fish farm and fishery complex at Lake Nasser have led to a considerable increase in the number of freshwater fish and in the size of the yearly total catch. It has become essential, therefore, to implement strong and effective programmes of agricultural research, including integrated plant-parasitic nematode management. It contributes nearly one-eighth of the GDP, employs roughly one-fourth of the labour force, and provides the country—through agricultural exports—with an important part of its foreign exchange. Area of agricultural lands - arable land, permanent crops, permanent meadows and pastures. Yes, food is what made Egypt wealthy, long before fancy tombs and cool drawings. The actual damage caused by these nematodes is difficult to assess at the national level. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Report question . Irrigation tools. Results of some research work carried out by the NRC show the possibility of using some biological agents (bacteria or fungi) as well as soil solarization in controlling root-knot nematodes. Egypt, located in northeastern Africa, has an arid climate. Other subtropical fruits are also grown in Egypt, including grapes, stone fruits and pome fruits. Moreover, senior researchers in MOA and abroad who obtained their Ph.D. degrees at the centre still seek advice from our staff and collaborate with them in resolving nematode problems in the country. The reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis, is next to the root-knot nematodes in inflicting significant crop losses in many vegetable and field crops. The development of Egyptian agriculture was not created in a vacuum. Cotton, soybean, tomato, cowpea, beans and jasmine are among the hosts of this nematode. The entire crop area is irrigated, except for some rain-fed areas on the Mediterranean coast. Similar programs have been undertaken in the western delta and the Sinai Peninsula, and a project to make more than 1,500,000 acres (630,000 hectares) of desert cultivable was inaugurated in 2015. It was estimated, however, in individual fields and experimental plots to be around 25 percent. With the exception of the University of Cairo, nematology laboratory equipment is inadequate for the training of graduate students. How many of each type of land belongs to each man live in the country. Favorite Answer. and the lance nematode (Hoploliamus spp.) Along the Nile, the population density is one of the highest in the world, in excess of 5,000 persons per square mile (2,000 per square km) in a number of riverine governorates. Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. The NRC, as a centre, could expand its wide range of nematological services to all the North African countries. Working out how many people lived in ancient Egypt is far from an easy task. The wide distribution, extensive host range and involvement with other micro-organisms in disease complexes put nematodes on top of the list of plant pests affecting agricultural production in the country. On the regular behaviour of the Nile rested the prosperity, the very continuity, of the land. Egypt was an aggressive culture, and, at one time, Egypt ruled from present-day Libya in the west; Syria in the northeast; and Ethiopia and Somalia and, perhaps, portions of sub-Saharan Africa in the south. are considered economically important nematodes causing disease in Egyptian clover, legume crops and banana trees. km) Forest area (% of land area) Rural land area where elevation is below 5 meters (% of total land area) Urban land area where elevation is below 5 meters (% of total land area) Land area (sq. Egypt’s biological resources, centred around the Nile, have long been one of its principal assets. The Egyptian Academy of Scientific Research provided partial financial support to a number of research projects for improving food-crop production. Livestock production is an essential element of Egypt’s agricultural sector. Land area, water area. Fields had to be plowed and seed sown and water moved to different areas, which led to the invention of the ox-drawn plow and improvements in irrigation. Researchers suggest that by 2050, the population could reach between 120 and 150 million. They are widely distributed in the light soils of the Nile Valley and delta as well as in the newly reclaimed desert areas. Food legumes. Fibre crops. Only 6 percent of the country is arable and agricultural land; the rest of the country is desert. The Nematology Research Centre (NRC) is entrusted with the nematology part of the course. There are several trained nematologists in Egypt (71 with Ph.D. degrees) distributed among the universities and the Agricultural Research Centre and the National Research Centre as follows: Cairo University (Giza) 16; Cairo University (Fayoum) 2; Ain Shams University 2; Assiut University 2; Tanta University (Kafr El-Sheikh) 2; Mansoura University 2; Zagazig University (Zagazig) 3; Zagazig University (Moshtohor) 1; Menia University 1; Menofia University 3; Suez Canal University 2; Al-Azhar University 3; Helwan University 1; Alexandria University 4; Agricultural Research Centre 13; Desert Institute 2; National Research Centre 12. Vegetables. Citrus, primarily oranges that represent 85 percent of total citrus production, makes up 50 percent of total fruit production. The citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) is an important and destructive pest of citrus trees in Egypt. During the same period, the rate of population growth has increased at a slightly higher rate than the increase in crop production. Egypt and Netherlands both have high physiological densities, but the Dutch have a much lower agricultural density. This limited area, which sustains on the average 8 persons per acre (20 per hectare), is, however, highly fertile and is cropped more than once a year. Higher population density … Tags: Question 8 . These include a number of bean crops that are used for human consumption, such as broad beans and soybeans. The ox-drawn plow was designed in two gauges: heavy and light. Today, the river continues to serve as a source of irrigation, as well as an important transportation and trade route. Agricultural density is one of three measures of statistical analysis for population density in demography, the science of human populations. The agricultural sector accounts for 28 percent of all jobs, and over 55 percent of employment in Upper Egypt is agriculture-related. Agricultural Density is also a clue to level of industrialization (#2, #6, and #7 are all high – many farmers per sq km). Potatoes are the second most important vegetable after tomatoes, both in terms of cash value and total tonnage produced. Until the completion of the Aswān High Dam in 1970, the pattern of inundation and falling water, of high Nile and low Nile, established the Egyptian year and controlled the lives of the Egyptian farmers—and most Egyptians were tied to a life on the land—from birth to death, from century to century. The agricultural lands were irrigated by the water of the Nile River and its canals. Other international financial support through foundations and bilateral agreements is contributing to research in nematology for increasing agricultural crop production. The heavy plow went first and cut the furrows while the lighter plow came behind turning up the earth. The climate is generally very uniform with good sunshine. Such technical training programmes would no doubt increase the capabilities of national research systems, and could produce new strategies for nematode management. 900 seconds . and some virus diseases reported in Egyptian vineyards has not yet been confirmed. Credit should be given to Professor B.A. Maize is the second most important crop (750 000 feddans), but at least 50 percent of its production is used for livestock and poultry feed. and Pratylenchus spp. "Arable land" is defined by the … The main summer field crop is cotton, which absorbs much of the available labour and represents a notable portion of the value of exports. Association between dagger nematodes (Xiphinema spp.) Despite its documentation-rich bureaucracy, dynastic Egypt has not left us anything like a national census that would tell us how many people lived in the Nile Valley and Delta, nor one for any of its major population centres. Suburban density. With a lack of such direct evidence, various estimates of population have been made on the basis of different types of evidence. Egypt has two seasons of cultivation, one for winter and another for summer crops. Abstract PIP: This study, which attempts to shed some light on population policies adopted by the Egyptian government since 1962, examines 3 factors, which include: congruency of population policies with the prevalent religious beliefs; responsiveness of these policies to the actual needs of the people of Egypt; and legitimacy of the policies. Wheat is the major winter cereal grain crop and the third major crop in terms of area planted (about 600 000 feddans). Along with climate and corresponding types of vegetation, the economy of a nation also influences the level of agricultural production. DEFINITION: Agricultural land (sq. Losses in tomato crops have been large as a result of tomato leaf curl virus, early and late blight, and nematodes. Out of 6 000 students who receive a B.Sc. The 12 universities in Egypt include 14 faculties of agriculture in which nematology is taught to undergraduate and postgraduate students. km) About 96 percent of Egypt’s total area is desert. The New Valley project, begun in 1997, was initially slated to bring roughly 500,000 acres (200,000 hectares) under production in the southern Western Desert by pumping water from Lake Nasser through a long canal. Egypt continuously incorporated technology as well as new crops from the Rice is one of the major field crops, grown on nearly 500 000 feddans, and is considered the second most important export crop after cotton. Agricultural land (% of land area) Forest area (% of land area) Rural land area where elevation is below 5 meters (% of total land area) Urban land area where elevation is below 5 meters (% of total land area) Land area (sq. Cereals. Among other principal field crops are corn (maize), rice, wheat, sorghum, and fava (broad) beans (fūl). km). ... Women living in France choose to have less children but die at higher rates than in Egypt due to greater pollution in industrialized countries such as France. The statistic shows the population density in Egypt from 2008 to 2018. The Nile River flows over 6,600 kilometers (4,100 miles) until emptying into the Mediterranean Sea. 9 years ago. These are all things and people that make Egypt memorable and fascinating. Rotation is not usually a practical control measure because of the intensive use of the land and the government pricing policy for some crops. The Nematology Research Centre (NRC), Cairo University, is by far the largest, best-staffed (16 with Ph.D. degrees) and best-equipped nematology research centre in, at least, North Africa. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! degree every year, nearly 300 specialize either in plant pathology or economic entomology and study nematology at the undergraduate level. Most students enrolled for postgraduate studies come from the Plant Pathology and Plant Protection Institutes of the ARC, as well as from the universities themselves. The area of agricultural land in Egypt is confined to the Nile Valley and delta, with a few oases and some arable land in Sinai. Water efficiency. Heavy capital is invested in the form of canals, drains, dams, water pumps, and barrages; the investment of skilled labour, commercial fertilizers, and pesticides is also great. A two-week training course in the different plant protection disciplines (insects, nematodes, mites, diseases, weeds) is held annually at Cairo University. The population density of Egypt as a whole is 84 people per square kilometer (218/square mile), with Cairo having the heaviest density at 46,349 per kilometer square. Most universities also provide more opportunities for postgraduate studies in nematology. This does not apply to small farmers with small landholdings (less than 1 feddan), and to many university graduates who are assigned 5 feddans each in newly reclaimed desert areas; nematicides are simply not within their economic reach This category of landholders therefore has no economic way of combating the nematode damage that is always present. The cyst-forming nematode has recently become an important pest in Egyptian agriculture. Quarantine measures should be enforced to prevent the transport of any infected plant parts, infected soil, or organic manures to newly reclaimed areas. Their actual damage has not been assessed. There are three different kinds of population densities. Q. There are three sectors in which nematological research, teaching and extension fall. km) Urban land area where elevation is below 5 meters (sq. Lack of forests, permanent meadows, or pastures places a heavy burden on the available arable land, which constitutes only about 3 percent of the total area. Total area of Netherlands. Areas of research that have taken place at the centre throughout the past three decades include surveys for nematode infection in major crops (cotton, sugar cane, maize, legumes, vegetables especially tomatoes, watermelons, grapes, fruit-trees including citrus, olives, stone fruits and pome fruits). Total population of Egypt = c. 2 million. Complete crop losses were also reported for tomato crops when the soil population of the nematodes was very large, especially in the summer crop and in sandy soils. The agricultural density of a population is the number of farmers per unit area of farmland. Many varieties of fruit are grown, and some, such as citrus, are exported. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Sugar cane is the main sugar crop in upper Egypt. This is a list of countries ordered by physiological density. However, in newly reclaimed areas heavily infected with root-knot nematodes, farmers, by experience, substitute tomato summer crops with a non-host crop. Inspection of soil and seedling roots in private and government nurseries for root-knot and citrus nematodes is not seriously undertaken. Heterodera zea and H. cajani are of common occurrence in maize and legume crops. Water pollution. Agriculture is a major component of the Egyptian economy, contributing 11.3 percent of the country’s gross domestic product. Nematicidal field trials are made every year under the supervision of MOA and in cooperation with many faculties of agriculture for the assessment of crop losses and to provide new recommendations for nematode control. By 1975 less than one-eighth of the total cultivated area was held by owners with 50 acres or more. But how do you grow food in the desert hea… Egypt is dependent on its wheat supply to run the bread subsidy program, which is estimated to benefit almost 70 million citizens of Egypt’s 90 million population. Cotton has traditionally been the most important fibre crop in Egypt and the leading agricultural export crop. As well as the training the centre provides to graduate students, it also provides training for agricultural engineers working in the field of plant protection, and always demonstrates interest and capabilities in extension, although the centre has no direct links with the extension service. The landholdings are fragmented, with the average size of farm units being 2.5 feddans. NOW 50% OFF! Conclusions and recommendations. Unlike the situation in comparable developing countries, Egyptian agriculture is geared overwhelmingly toward commercial rather than subsistence production. The total land reclaimed as a result of the Aswān High Dam project reached more than 1,000,000 acres (400,000 hectares) by 1975, in addition to some 700,000 acres (284,000 hectares) converted from basin (one crop per year) irrigation to perennial irrigation. This centre is affiliated to the Zoology and Nematology Department of the Faculty of Agriculture. Nematological problems 00. animallover. Training of agricultural engineers involved in the field of plant protection and pest control has lately become the concern of MOA. candidates. Now, we are going to talk about the techniques of farming and tools that were used in agriculture. So both Egypt and the Netherlands need land to produce food but the Dutch require fewer farmers than the Egyptians The total area cropped annually is about 11.5 million feddans, which represents a cropping ratio of about 2:1. Foreign aid research programmes in nematology are limited. Furthermore, a collaborative IPM programme has also started between the Nematology Research Centre of Cairo University and four United States universities: North Carolina State University, the University of Maryland, the University of Georgia and the State University of Florida. It has been detected in at least 60 percent of the citrus-growing areas in Egypt. Over the past four decades, an area of 900 000 feddans of newly reclaimed land has been added to the agricultural area. In 2018, the density of Egypt's population amounted to 98.87 inhabitants per square kilometer. Egypt’s agriculture sector is dominated by small farms using traditional practices that do not meet international standards. Cairo University does have a nematology research centre where some highly sophisticated scientific equipment is made available through United States Agency for International Development (USAID) projects and other foreign funds. Control measures Its most important structure, the Mubarak Pumping Station, was completed in 2005, but only a fraction of the projected land area was brought under production after two decades. Total population of Egypt = c. 1.6 million 1800 BC (height of the Middle Kingdom) Agricultural efforts by Middle Kingdom kings significantly increased the amount of cultivable land and density of occupation in the Faiyum and in the Delta, together with a slight rise in population density in all areas. The first published research article relating to plant-parasitic nematodes in Egypt was in 1901, when Prayer described a nematode disease of banana which caused root galling. The lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.) The disease caused by this nematode is particularly severe on the heavy soil of the Nile Valley and delta. Egypt - Egypt - Agriculture and fishing: About 96 percent of Egypt’s total area is desert. Therefore, the use of nematicidal applications is economic. Other nematode species are present in almost all cultivated lands in the country, some of them such as the stunt nematode (Tylenchorhynchus spp.) km) Urban land area where elevation is below 5 meters (sq. Agricultural land: 2007: 35 380: km 2: Agricultural land per 1000 population : 2007: 0.4: km 2 per 1000 population: Agricultural land (percentage of total area) 2007: 3.5 % of total area: Agricultural land (percentage of land area) 2007: 3.6 % of land area: Arable land: 2007: 30 180: km 2: Arable land per 1000 population : 2007: 0.4: km 2 per 1000 population: Arable land (percentage of total area) By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Traditional irrigation methods in rural Egypt. Oil rents amounted up to 15 percent of GDP in the 1990s but are down to 7 percent in 2013. The rapid increase in Egypt’s population prompted an intensification of cultivation almost without parallel elsewhere. Land use statistics for Netherlands. This was partly the result of several complementary measures of agrarian reform, such as regulation of land tenure and rent control, that accompanied the redistribution of the land. In the case of Egypt, while the crude density is only 72, physiological density works out to be nearly 2,500 persons per square kilometer of cultivable land. Food and raw agricultural products represent around 19 percent of In 1952 a limit of 200 acres (80 hectares) was imposed on individual ownership of land, and this was lowered to 100 acres (40 hectares) in 1961 and to 50 acres (20 hectares) in 1969. When the Nile behaved as expected, which most commonly was the case, life went on as normal; when the flood failed or was excessive, disaster followed. Egypt FAO STAT - Land use and Agricultural Inputs, Egypt FAO STAT-Food,Nutrition and Food Security, Egypt Cereals Production, Egypt FAO STAT -Water resources & Agriculture production and trade, Egypt FAO STAT - Economic Indicators These sectors are: Egyptian universities, the Agricultural Research Centre of the Ministry of Agriculture (ARC/MOA), and the National Research Centre of the Academy of Scientific Research and Technology. Sugar beet also grows in large areas in the Nile delta, and contributes to the sugar industry in Egypt. Over the past 60 years, Egypt’s population has grown by more than 60 million people. seem to cause some noticeable damage to crops, but none of them has been of great importance to the economy of the country. Urban density. One of the major obstacles facing the production of more food for Egypt's fast-growing population is the damage caused by pests. About 90 percent of the yield is used for sugar extraction. Example of Physiological Density: Egypt-difference between physiological and arithmetic density indicates that much of the land isn't suitable for agriculture-most Egyptians live in Nile River Valley. It could also offer advanced training for professional, graduate and postdoctoral research fellows. The centre could also organize meetings and workshops, through which nematologists from North African countries could exchange information that contributes to strengthening their national systems and encourages work towards the objective of nematode management. Uneven water distribution. Area of land covered by forests. A stand of sugarcane on the west bank of the Nile River, near Dandarah, Egypt. 2. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations (FAO), the world’s population is going to soar up to 9.6 billion in 2015. The ongoing National Agricultural Research Project (NARP) is financed by USAID. Egypt has been the scene of one of the most successful attempts at land reform. Rent control has since been discontinued for land and new constructions but remains in effect for older real estate. Egypt - Egypt - Demographic trends: Most of Egypt’s people live along the banks of the Nile River, and more than two-fifths of the population lives in urban areas. The success of Egyptian land reform is indicated by the substantial rise of land yields after 1952. Construction of the Aswān High Dam enabled not only control of the Nile’s floods but also the reclamation of vast tracts of land for farming. The entire crop area is irrigated, except for some rain-fed areas on the Mediterranean coast. Through this programme, limited research grants are allocated to a few faculties of agriculture to strengthen their facilities and carry out applied research in this context. Physiological Density is calculated by taking the population of a state or country and dividing it by its arable land. It includes an integrated pest management (IPM) programme on major crops. Sugar crops. Infrastructure and training However, bec… Commercial companies working in the field of pesticides have supported some short-term research projects mainly on nematode surveys and control. Agricultural density. 3 stages of the population policy are identified. Egyptian clover, berseem, is the major winter forage crop cultivated in the Nile Valley and delta. 3. So these are probably Bangladesh, India and Egypt. The Physiological Density of Italy is 203. ECONOMY, AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SECURITY In 2014, Egypt’s gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated at US$ 287 000 million of which the agricultural sector accounted for 14.5 percent. The area of agricultural land in Egypt is confined to the Nile Valley and delta, with a few oases and some arable land in Sinai. Of these the root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) Egypt Area and Population Density. In addition, the Nile is an exceptional source of water, and soil near the Nile is generally of excellent quality. Now at least 20 plant-parasitic nematode genera are reported to occur in all the agricultural lands of Egypt. Read more some of the major factors playing havoc with water security in Egypt : 1. These kinds include arithmetic, physiological, and agricultural densities. The total cultivated area is 7.2 million feddans (1 feddan = 0.42 ha), representing only 3 percent of the total land area. Arithmetic density is also known as real density while physiological density is the number of people per unit of arable land. Conscious of the need to conserve and to increase arable land, the Egyptian government has encouraged the establishment of new settlements in desert areas and has promoted projects to bring large areas of unproductive desert under cultivation. At the same time, catches of sea fish in the waters off the Nile delta have declined, because of the change in the flow and character of Nile water after the construction of the Aswān High Dam. Egypt is the world’s principal producer of long-staple cotton (1.125 inches [2.85 cm] and longer), normally supplying about one-third of the world crop; total Egyptian cotton production, however, constitutes just a tiny fraction of the global yield. Agriculture remains an important sector of the Egyptian economy. Since its establishment in 1964, the centre has contributed a great deal of research information towards solving some of our national nematode problems in agriculture. Lack of forests, permanent meadows, or pastures places a heavy burden on the available arable land, which constitutes only about 3 percent of the total area. It was established by cooperation between the University of Cairo, the Ministry of Agriculture, and the Supreme Council of Science and Technology, and was opened in 1964. The fruit-planted area has expanded over the last three decades to reach about 200 000 feddans. Period of Arab and Turkish governors (639–868), The Mamluk and Ottoman periods (1250–1800), From the French to the British occupation (1798–1882), The French occupation and its consequences (1798–1805), Muḥammad ʿAlī and his successors (1805–82), The period of British domination (1882–1952), The British occupation and the Protectorate (1882–1922). Other important crops include sugarcane, tomatoes, sugar beets, potatoes, and onions. agricultural density is of course , along either side of the river nile ,, all the way , from the south , till the north of egypt . During the same period, however, an agricultural area almost as large was lost to industry and growing towns. Nematicides constitute a high percentage of the total pesticides imported annually. Here is a video that illustrates the problem of water : Production (and consumption) of agricultural plant commodities has a diverse geographical distribution. Cairo alone, which is the capital city of Egypt, has a population of around 10.902 million people (according to estimations made in 2009). During the past two decades a few research projects on plant-parasitic nematodes have been financed through USAID programmes: Agriculture Development Systems (ADS), the Egyptian Major Cereals Improvement Project (EMCIP) and PL-480 programmes. Root-knot in Egypt is the major problem in greenhouse cultures and commercial nurseries, where high-value crops are grown in relatively small areas. km) All of the 71 nematologists, and more junior nematologists (M.Sc.) Moreover, the nematology research programme has generally included work on the biology, pathogenicity, population dynamics and control of plant-parasitic nematodes, as well as a good deal of work on the use of entomogenous nematodes in the biological control of insect pests. Large numbers of undergraduate enrolments are usually recorded at the 14 faculties of agriculture. Despite a considerable output, the cereal production in Egypt falls short of the country’s total consumption needs; a substantial proportion of foreign exchange is spent annually on the import of cereals and milling products. Tomatoes are grown in three seasons - winter, summer and autumn - on about 3 percent of Egypt's total planted area. Strict crop rotation—in addition to government controls on the allocation of area to crops, on varieties planted, on the distribution of fertilizers and pesticides, and on marketing—contributes to high agricultural yield. Agricultural density is a useful statistic for recognizing trends in population growth, development, and stability. Egyptian and American nematologists are collaborating to combat nematodes infecting five major crops; cotton, maize, groundnut, citrus and tomatoes. In addition to citrus, this nematode also infects grapes and olives and affects their production. For example, Cairo University has five Ph.D. and eight M.Sc. The Centre occupies 1 800 m2 and has an additional area of 2.5 feddans for microplots and greenhouses.
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