obligate marine fungi

NCi6 transcriptome was more enriched in lignin breakdown enzymes, the proteomic and transcriptomic analyses suggested that the adaptation of mangrove fungi to salt expressed in an increase in the number of cellulolytic enzymes, enhancing cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis at increasing the salinity up to 3% (Arfi et al., 2013). nov., a polysaccharide-degrading marine bacterium isolated from the red alga Ahnfeltia tobuchiensis. 37, 326–328. (2017). (2017). tain obligate marine fungi, terrestrial fungi and those that can survive, or at least tolerate both environments to some degree. KF525 could additionally produce biomass from the sulfated galactans, agar and carrageenan (Supplementary Table 1). (2016), Calcarisporium sp., Tritirachium sp., Bartalinia robillardoides, Penicillium pinophilum, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, and Pestalotiopsis sp., grew well on cellulose or CMC as the sole carbon source indicating only weak production of cellulases or endoglucanases. Most ocean fungi live on animals and plants, or dead and decaying matter. 53, 275–282. Macroalgae polysaccharides are divided into storage and structural depending on their chemical structure and function (Jiao et al., 2011; Kim, 2011; Ermakova et al., 2015; Rodrigues et al., 2015; Synytsya et al., 2015; Abdallah et al., 2016; Cunha and Grenha, 2016; Deniaud-Bouet et al., 2017; Raimundo et al., 2017). Alginates are linear polymers composed by two epimers, β-1,4-D-mannuronate (M) and α-1,4-L-guluronate (G) (Synytsya et al., 2015; Deniaud-Bouet et al., 2017). Genetic engineering of Trichoderma reesei cellulases and their production. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro2519, Hasan, S., Ansari, M. I., Ahmad, A., and Mishra, M. (2015). Facultative marine strains related to the plant cell wall degradation are more likely to be cellulolytic (Supplementary Table 1). Of which 424 Ascomycota (251 genera) 94 Mitosporic fungi (61 genera) and 12 Basidiomycota (9 genera). (2010). 1B), the anamorphs (Fig. Different fungi producing lignolytic enzymes were isolated from polluted marine environments and screened for their possible use in bioremediation (Xue et al., 2015; Deshmukh et al., 2016; Bovio et al., 2017; Barnes et al., 2018). In addition, white-rot fungi have up to 12 members of ligninolytic peroxidases from the AA2 family, distinguishing them from brown-rot fungi, which contain no AA2 members (Floudas et al., 2012; Hori et al., 2013; Levasseur et al., 2013). “Cell wall polysaccharides of marine algae,” in Springer Handbook in Marine Biotechnology, ed. 60, 7702–7709. 74, 2709–2716. 35, 197–202. ), or algal polysaccharides were added into the growth medium (Raghukumar, 2008; D’Souza-Ticlo et al., 2009; Ravindran et al., 2010; Rodriguez-Jasso et al., 2010; Zhang and Kim, 2010; Chen et al., 2011; Faten and Abeer, 2013; Bonugli-Santos et al., 2015; Hong et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2016; Balabanova et al., 2018). 1A) and a few basidio-mycetes. The cellulose and hemicellulose content of the seaweeds has been surveyed to be 2–10% and 9% dry weight, respectively. Biotechnol. As the most renewable energy feedstock on the Earth, the plant or … In addition, the absence of simple methods for quantitative determination of the fucoidanase activity and the use of structurally uncharacterized fucans hamper exploring fucoidanases and finding the new enzymes (Ermakova et al., 2015). All species are obligate endoparasites of animals, except Nephromyces, a symbiont in marine animals, originally classified as a chytrid fungus. Biodegrad. Biotechnol. NCi6 in comparison with the amount of putative algae polysaccharide-degrading enzymes (Supplementary Table 2). Basidiomycota is the other phylum of Dikarya. When high tide comes, some fungal spores colonize the damaged parts of the plants, and these are what the snail eats – it cultivates a fungus farm on the Spartina. Polaribacter staleyi sp. 73, 1–72. Facultative forms are originally sourced from terrestrial or fresh water region but they are able to colonize and adopt with the marine habitat and the obligate are extensively live in marine ecosystem (Kohlmeyer and Kohlmeyer, … It is known that at least 35 GH, 3 CE and 6 PL families are involved in plant polysaccharide degradation (van den Brink and de Vries, 2011). From the green alga Ulva sp., the endophytic and obligate marine fungus Ascochyta salicorniae was isolated. Many of these belong to the straminipilan fungi and are widespread in the sea. The genome sequencing of the psychrotrophic strain Cadophora malorum revealed deficient in cellulase genes, but its putative alginate lyase could be acquired due to the adaptation to marine environment (Rédou et al., 2016). doi: 10.1007/s00253-011-3473-2, van Leeuwen, J. H., Rasmussen, M. L., Sankaran, S., Koza, C. R., Erickson, D. T., Mitra, D., et al. Biochem. (1979) stated that marine fungi can be categorized into two groups, namely the obligate marine fungi which are able to grow and sporulate exclusively in marine and estuarine habitat; and facultative marine fungi which originated from freshwater and terrestrial habitats but are able to grow and possibly sporulate in marine … (2018). Thus, only two thermostable (50–60°C) fucoidanases from marine fungi Dendryphiella arenaria TM94 and Fusarium sp. (2012). Biosafety Res. Mangroves are considered as major Facultative marine fungi are those that normally occupy freshwater or terrestrial habitats but are able to grow (and possibly create spores) in a marine environment. Open J. Yangtze Gas Oil 2, 10–26. Remarkably, only fungi possessed β-1,3-glucanases with exo-type action. However, the sequence similarity-based approach continues to reveal the fungal taxonomic classification that should adequately reflect their ecology and chemical potential (Reich and Labes, 2017). Fungal collection isolated from a marine sponge, Ircinia variabilis (formerly Psammocinia sp). CBMAI 1328 and Arthopyrenia sp. doi: 10.1016/j.margen.2017.09.007, Richards, T. A., Jones, M. D. M., Leonard, G., and Bass, D. (2012). doi: 10.4236/ojogas.2017.21002, Lio, J. Y., and Wang, T. (2012). Sustain. (2003). The family 11 carbohydrate-binding module of Clostridium thermocellum Lic26A-Cel5E accommodates beta-1,4- and beta-1,3-1,4-mixed linked glucans at a single binding site. J. Res. (2018). Sci. Research and application of marine microbial enzymes: status and prospects. For example, the OTU_13192 composed of 62 reads was identified as Corollospora maritima . FEMS Microbiol. β-Xylosidases are grouped into the GH families 3, 8, 30, 39, 43, 52, 54, 116, 120, but the known GHs of fungal origin are limited to families 3 and 43 (Ochoa-Villarreal et al., 2012; Rytioja et al., 2014; Kirikyali and Connerton, 2015; Berlemont, 2017; Thomas et al., 2017). The capability of metabolic utilization of plant or macroalgae polysaccharides allows for an increase in the production of fungal biomass enriched by mycelium proteins and extracellular enzymes that can be used in animal or fish feeding, or in the bioremediation of soils and water (Supplementary Table 1). Bioremediation potential of hydrocarbon-utilizing fungi from select marine niches of India. doi: 10.1515/BOT.2010.026, Rédou, V., Kumar, A., Hainaut, M., Henrissat, B., Record, E., Barbier, G., et al. You can find fungi anywhere you look: mud, beach sand, on algae, in corals, detritus in mangrove swamps, estuarine grasses, and even nestled in the gut of crustaceans (Hyde et al. AA, monooxygenase; AFC, α-fucosidase; AGA, agarase; AGU, gucuronidase; ALG, alginate lyase; BGL, β-1,4-glucosidase; BXL, β-1,4-xylosidase; CAR, carrageenase; CBHI, exo-β-glucanase (reducing end); CBHIl, exo-β-glucanase cellobiohydrolase (non-reducing end); EG, endo-β-1,4-glucanase; GLU, β-1,4/1,3-glucanase; MAN, β-1,4-endomannanase; MND- β-1,4-mannosidase; ULV, ulvanlyase; XEG, xyloglucan-β-1,4-endoglucanase; XLN, β-1,4/1,3-endoxylanase; XLS, β-1,4-xylosidase (reducing end); XYL, β-1,3-xylosidase (van den Brink and de Vries, 2011; Pluvinage et al., 2013; Rytioja et al., 2014; Zhao et al., 2014; Zhu et al., 2016; Gao et al., 2017; Ulaganathan et al., 2017). However, the use of cellulose in the growth medium as the sole carbon source can provide an increase of cellulolytic enzymes synthesis in fungi (Hong et al., 2015; Lee et al., 2015). Still others are free-living, such as arenicolous fungi that live in sand pores. Lignin-degrading marine fungi have been mostly identified in mangroves and seagrasses (Raghukumar, 2008; Arfi et al., 2013; Panno et al., 2013; Sette and Santos, 2013; Bonugli-Santos et al., 2015). Ecol. 2012). The fungal filtrate also showed moderate activities of xylosidase (0.26 U mL-1) and arabinofuranosidase that could act synergistically with xylanase at attacking xylan. (2009). Rep. 28, 290–344. PLoS One 7:e49679. J. Biol. However, the question of what the marine fungi contributes to the plant and algae material biotransformation processes has yet to be highlighted sufficiently. Sin. Chem. (2015). Thus, an alginate lyase from the Aspergillus oryzae associated with brown seaweed was unique due to cleaving the β-1,4 glycosidic bond between polyM and polyG blocks of sodium alginate resulted in a higher polyM/polyG ratio in comparison with the acid hydrolysis (Singh et al., 2011). Sulfated seaweed polysaccharides as multifunctional materials in drug delivery applications. Microbiol. This fact suggests a broadened substrate specificity of the marine fungal enzymes that may be conditioned by the adaptation of once soil fungi to a marine life style in the medium with the higher salt concentrations, depleted nutritional resources and/or fungal-marine habitant relationships (Kumar et al., 2015). doi: 10.1007/s12010-010-8992-2, Rytioja, J., Hildén, K., Yuzon, J., Hatakka, A., de Vries, R. P., and Mäkelä, M. R. (2014). (2015). In the same way, low molecular weight carbohydrates produced during destruction of polymers could induce the expression of other CAZyme genes (Coradetti et al., 2012; Hori et al., 2013; Mukherjee et al., 2016). The medium optimization indicated that productivity of both acidophilic tannase and gallic acid could be enhanced to about 15-fold under SmF. The unique properties of the enzyme rather related to its structure distinguished from the reported terrestrial analogs (Beena et al., 2011). 133, 308–314. Protoplasma 243, 25–38. Surprising spectra of root-associated fungi in submerged aquatic plants. After the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, we heard a lot about oil-eating bacteria. Fungal diversity from various marine habitats deduced through culture-independent studies. obligate marine fungi, for those growing exclusively in a marine habitat, and facultative marine fungi, for those isolated from the freshwater or terrestrial origin, and also from the marine environment. Genome sequencing reveals the complex polysaccharide-degrading ability of novel deep-sea bacterium Flammeovirga pacifica WPAGA1. Mar. The adjective ‘marine’ in the term ‘marine fungi’, in most cases, refers to the environment from which the fungi are isolated; whereas, the terms ‘obligate marine’ or ‘facultative marine’ are ecologically-based terms imparting an understanding of active vegetative colonization of the habitat, physiological activity, and effective ecological role(s) of the fungi in the marine … Moreover, there is abundant evidence for multiple recolonizations of the ocean by fungi (Spatafora et al., 1998; Richards et al., 2012). Transcriptome and exoproteome analysis of utilization of plant-derived biomass by Myceliophthora thermophila. 46, 32–37. They have the advantage of yielding more energy than the obligate … Genomics 36, 57–75. doi: 10.3923/ajbkr.2011.98.124, Deshmukh, R., Khardenavis, A. Recently, the lignin-degrading enzymes have been joined to the families LPMO included a new CAZy class of AAs to adopt a range of oxidative mechanisms related to lignocellulose conversion (Levasseur et al., 2013). The relatively more recent application of DNA sequencing techniques has provided additional insights into marine fungal diversity and has stimulated a new wave of interest into their functional roles in marine ecosystems – though the DNA sequencing techniques currently in use were designed using largely terrestrial representatives, and so are greatly biased towards the fungal subkingdom Dikarya, resulting in poor representation of other fungal groups known to occupy marine habitats. Biotechnol. Microbiol. (2014). Protoc. J. Mar. Facultative marine fungi normally occupy terrestrial or freshwater habitats, but are capable of living or even sporulating in a marine … Fungal Divers. 72, 10–20. Mar. CBMAI 1063, and Tinctoporellus sp. Phylogenomic relationships between amylolytic enzymes from 85 strains of fungi. KF079 at a similar rate as glucose demonstrated the efficiency with which their amylases and glucanases were expressed (Wang et al., 2016) (Supplementary Table 1). Drugs 13, 4137–4155. CBMAI 1328 and Arthopyrenia sp. Biochemistry 78, 746–759. A high occurrence of polygalacturonase producers (30%) among the deep-sea yeast collected from the mud of Sagami Bay (1100–1400 m) capable of degrading plant pectin was inexplicable (Minegishi et al., 2006). Therefore, the gene sequences encoding CAZymes of marine fungi should be explored on their functionality to use in the genetic modification and metabolic improvement of the biotechnological strains, particularly for their cultivation at the high salt concentrations or other extreme conditions in industry or bioremediation of soils and water. Definition noun, plural: obligate aerobes An aerobe that requires oxygen for aerobic respiration. [6,7]. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.00467-16, Redouan, E., Cedric, D., Emmanuel, P., Mohamed, E. G., Bernard, C., Philippe, M., et al. Curr. Methods for isolation of marine-derived endophytic fungi and their bioactive secondary products. MUT 4399, and white-rot fungus Schizophyllum commune (KC339233) showed the high levels of laccase and peroxidase activities (degradation > 75%, DP), respectively (Panno et al., 2013). Basidiomycetes produce their spores in special cells called basidia. Fungal cellulases. 2012). generally accepted definition of a marine fungus is broad and is based on the habitat as described by Kohlmeyer & Volkmann-Kohlmeyer (1990): ‘‘obligate marine fungi are those that grow and sporulate exclusively in a marine or estuarine habitat; facultative marine Carrageenases and agarases have not yet been explored in marine fungi, but these enzymes can belong to the multifunctional family GH16, whose genes are widely distributed in fungal genomes (Zhao et al., 2014; Kumar et al., 2015; Mai et al., 2016) (Supplementary Table 2b). 56, 247–264. doi: 10.1051/ebr:2007031, Niturea, S. K., Kumar, A. R., Parabc, P. B., and Panta, A. Considering the importance of cellulases with the alkaline pH-optimums in craft pulping industries, screening of the marine-derived endophytes and wood litter fungi has been carried out in the mangrove ecosystem of the Goa coast using agro-wastes (Ravindran et al., 2010). Mol. But many fungal species also secrete enzymes from their cells, which can externally break down an array of compounds in the surrounding environment, including hydrocarbons (the chief component of petroleum and natural gas). Drugs 8, 1920–1934. Consequently, several enzymes are needed to completely degrade these polysaccharides. doi: 10.3390/md9122514, Vohník, M., Borovec, O., and Kolařík, M. (2016). 289, 6199–6211. 2010. Enzyme Microb. The fungus Chaetomium indicum associated with Fucus evanescens collected near the Kuril Islands, and Trichoderma aureviride sampled from bottom sediments of South China Sea had similar extracellular laminarinases classified as exo-1,3-β-D-glucan-glucanohydrolases (EC 3.2.1.58): the temperature optimums (40–45°C), molecular masses (54–56 kDa), Km (0.1–0.3 mg mL-1) (Burtseva et al., 2003). Relatively few species float freely in the water column, and those are mostly yeasts. The laccase activity was completely inhibited, and the number and diversity of ligninolytic enzymes decreased in Pestalotiopsis sp. doi: 10.1093/glycob/cwv072, Le Calvez, T., Burgaud, G., Mahe, S., Barbier, G., and Vandenkoornhuyse, P. (2009). Notably, the largest number of fungi able to produce xylanase with an enzymatic activity from 0.25 to 49.41 U mL-1 was recovered from marine sponges. Chemical composition of red, brown and green macroalgae from Buarcos bay in Central West Coast of Portugal. strain MG-60. Indian J. Microbiol. J. Chem. All Rights Reserved. Sci. Major bioactive metabolites from marine fungi: a review. A., Vieira, J. M. F., Videira, A., Meirelles, L. A., Rodrigues, A., Taniwaki, M. H., et al. J. Appl. A., Bolam, D. N., Gilbert, H. J., Pires, V. M., et al. Pigment and amylase production in Penicillium sp. 4, 495–522. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2011.07.109, Bovio, E., Gnavi, G., Prigione, V., Spina, F., Denaro, R., Yakimov, M., et al. (2011). Low hemicellulase activities in the marine-derived fungi from brown algae [≤0.02 U of β-xylosidase (BXL) activity per mL of crude fungal extract] were suggested to be due to the low content of hemicellulose in brown algae (Borines et al., 2011; Hong et al., 2015) (Supplementary Table 1). About 3.5–4.6% and 11.5–16.1% of cellulose fiber were chemically determined in non-food macroalgae Ascophyllum nodosum and Sargassum sp., which were used for bioethanol production (Kraan, 2012). Raghukumar, C. (2008). Floridean starch granules outside of plastids, and consisting mostly of a-D-glucose and insoluble amylopectin, are the main storage polysaccharide in the red seaweeds (Kim, 2011). There remains more questions than answers. De novo assembly and genome analyses of the marine-derived Scopulariopsis brevicaulis strain LF580 unravels life-style traits and anticancerous scopularide biosynthetic gene cluster. Impact Factor 4.235 | CiteScore 6.4More on impact ›, Institute for Sustainable Plant Protection, National Research Council (CNR), Italy, National University of Rosario, Argentina. Nat. Thus, the marine laccases, peroxidases, and tannases could be of great interest in both biotechnology and ecology in the cases where a high concentration of salts are required, particularly in the extremely cold environments (Kamei et al., 2008; Raghukumar, 2008; Pang et al., 2011; Bonugli-Santos et al., 2010; Menezes et al., 2010; Feng et al., 2013; Sette and Santos, 2013). Front. Algal endophytes Trichoderma harzianum and a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus cf. doi: 10.1007/s12010-013-0551-1, Deniaud-Bouet, E., Hardouin, K., Potin, P., Kloareg, B., and Herve, C. (2017). Feng, X., Chen, H., Xue, D., and Yao, S. (2013). The genes encoding additional xylanolytic enzymes were up-regulated in the presence of monocot straws, while the genes encoding additional pectinolytic enzymes were up-regulated in response to the presence of dicot alfalfa, canola, or flax in the nutrition medium. Microbiol. Probably for the same reason, the sequenced marine strain Scopulariopsis brevicaulis LF580 growing on alginate or ulvans as the sole carbon source does not have any known families of algae polysaccharide-degrading enzymes such as alginate lyases (PL7,-15,-17) or ulvan lyases (PL24,-25) (Supplementary Tables 1, 2a,b). Exoglucanases processively hydrolyze cellulose chains at the ends up to soluble cellobiose or glucose, and then β-glucosidases cleave cellobiose to glucose, eliminating cellobiose-dependent inhibition. Analyses of the RNA-Seq data under the cultivation of Arthrinium malaysianum with the repressor of glucose uptake 2-deoxy D-glucose (2-DG) revealed that 2691 transcripts were differentially expressed vs. control samples, and 302 CAZyme genes was up-regulated in response to 2-DG (Mukherjee et al., 2016). 282:20152243. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2015.2243, Rodrigues, D., Freitas, A. C., Pereira, L., Rocha-Santos, T. A. P., Vasconcelos, M. W., Roriz, M., et al. We know they’re there, but we have only a vague idea of what they’re doing. A. salicorniae was mass cultivated and found to produce the unprecedented and structurally unusual tetramic acid containing metabolites ascosalipyrrolidinones A (1) and B (2). The main storage polysaccharide in the brown seaweeds is laminarin formed by 1,3-β-glucans with β-1,6-branching and different reducing endings with mannitol or glucose residues (Table 1 and Figure 1). Lignin peroxidase (LiP) (E.C:1.11.1.14) and manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP) (EC 1.11.1.13) and laccase (Lac) (EC1.10.3.2) are the other major lignin-degrading enzymes with great potential for industrial applications (Bonugli-Santos et al., 2010, 2015; Panno et al., 2013). Unfortunately, marine fungal enzymes specific toward to the algal polysaccharides have yet to be structurally determined and classified (Supplementary Table 1). Int. How many species are there? A. E. A. Microbiol. grew with carrageenan as the sole carbon source, 10 of which produced the largest mycelial biomass. National Center for Biotechnology Informationwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6401481/, University of Southern Mississippiweb.archive.org/web/20130422084649/http://ocean.otr.usm.edu/~w529014/index_files/Page2025.htm, Sciencingsciencing.com/types-fungi-grow-ocean-8467074.html, Science Dailywww.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/10/191025170633.htm, Teaching Biologyweb.archive.org/web/20120316214528/http://bioteaching.wordpress.com/2011/12/17/cool-new-paper-marine-fungi/, Springer Linklink.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13225-019-00426-5, Forbeswww.forbes.com/sites/linhanhcat/2019/06/30/marine-fungi-superpowers/#4c52d90a16bf, Deep Sea Newswww.deepseanews.com/2011/08/marine-fungi-are-totally-badass/, Forest Floor Narrativewww.forestfloornarrative.com/blog/2019/7/12/an-aquatic-edition-of-fungi-friday-marine-fungi-and-the-roles-they-play, Wikipediaen.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marine_fungien.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ascomycotaen.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basidiomycotaen.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chytridiomycota, When it comes to fishing the Gulf Coast, Texas Saltwater Fishing Magazine is the premiere resource for anglers. Marine-derived fungi have been shown to be present in various habitats, such as decayed mangrove The Halosphaeriaceae is the largest family of marine fungi, while the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, and the yeast genus Candida are most widespread (Le Calvez et al., 2009; Jones et al., 2015; Kumar et al., 2015; Richards et al., 2015). 165, 466–482. Interestingly, a small proportion of sequences were classified to obligate marine fungi (e.g. MG-60 was stimulated in nitrogen-limited medium containing 3% (wt/vol) sea salts that increased the total MnP activity compared to the activity in a non-saline medium (Kamei et al., 2008). 3, 140–142. A. oryzae and Penicillium sp. doi: 10.1021/jf301674u, Lyons, J. I., Newell, S. Y., Buchan, A., and Moran, M. A. According to a commonly accepted definition, they are divided into obligate marine fungi, which grow and sporulate exclusively in the marine or estuarine environment, and facultative marine fungi, which may grow in marine as well as freshwater or terrestrial habitats. The most widely accepted definition for marine fungi is that of Kohlmeyer & Kohlmeyer [1979], according to which obligate marine fungi are those that grow and sporulate exclusively in a marine or estuarine habitat; while facultative marine fungi are those from freshwater or terrestrial habitats able to grow and possibly also Phycol. B. MnP is a glycoprotein dependent on H2O2 and Mn2+ and oxidizes aromatic phenols and dyes (Bonugli-Santos et al., 2010). Alsheikh-Hussain, A., Altenaiji, E. M., and Yousef, L. F. (2014). Res. Marine fungi are ex-pected to be found in parts that can be submerged, while Int. J. Bot. Screening marine-derived endophytic fungi for xylan-degrading enzymes. 3 Biotech 8:21. doi: 10.1007/s13205-017-1043-8, Beena, P. S., Basheer, S. M., Bhat, S. G., Bahkali, A. H., and Chandrasekaran, M. (2011). doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.10.064, Burtseva, Y. V., Verigina, N. S., Sova, V. V., Pivkin, M. V., and Zvyagintseva, T. N. (2003). doi: 10.1007/s10126-011-9392-5, Barnes, N. M., Khodse, V. B., Lotlikar, N. P., Meena, R. M., and Damare, S. R. (2018). Filamentous fungi were found to be one of the best degraders due to their great capability of secreting a wide range of xylan-degrading enzymes that have great biotechnological potential in the paper, pulp, feed, and food industries as well as in the generation of liquid fuels and chemicals from lignocellulose (Lio and Wang, 2012; Dos Santos et al., 2016; Berlemont, 2017). Our staff is made up of the most experienced... READ MORE, Order your Subscription to the best Texas Saltwater Fishing Magazine! Tricking Arthrinium malaysianum into producing industrially important enzymes under 2-deoxy D-glucose treatment. MG-60 have been found to synthesize new transcripts of lignolytic enzymes (isozymes) in secretomes produced in saline conditions (Kamei et al., 2008; Arfi et al., 2013). 71, 442–451. (2013). Evol. Seaweed polysaccharides and derived oligosaccharides stimulate defense responses and protection against pathogens in plants. (2015). Phylogenomic analyses indicate that early fungi evolved digesting cell walls of algal ancestors of land plants. (2016). To date, a little over 1,000 fungi species associated with marine environments have been identified, though it is estimated that there are greater than 10,000 as yet undescribed. The Paleozoic origin of enzymatic lignin decomposition reconstructed from 31 fungal genomes. doi: 10.3390/ijms17081360, Manohar, C. S., and Raghukumar, C. (2013).

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